Eleven Blue Men[WLOs: 2, 3] [CLOs: 1, 5]
Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please read Chapter 3 of the course textbook and the Roueché (2014) article Eleven Blue MenLinks to an external site. followed by the CDC’s Lesson 6: Investigating an Outbreak: Section 2: Steps of an Outbreak InvestigationLinks to an external site.. The true story of the eleven blue men by Berton Roueché is one of the staple readings for many who begin the study public health and epidemiology. The story takes place in late 1944 and centers upon eleven men who, aside from their breakfast location, have little to do with one another. However, what makes this story unique and of interest still today is that it highlights the speed and importance of a proper epidemiologic investigation.
After reading, answer the following questions:
- Describe the 13 steps of an outbreak investigation and connect them to this particular event in 1944.
- That is, for each step highlight where in the event a particular step occurred.
- Assess and draw the epidemic curve for this incident.
- Identify the type of curve it represents.
- Display the image.
- Calculate and state the incubation period for the illness affecting the eleven blue men.
- Identify three questions that Dr. Greenberg asked the patients.
- Identify three questions that Dr. Pellitteri asked the patients.
- Identify three questions that the epidemiologists asked the Eclipse Cafeteria employees.
- Identify the culprit.
- Identify what about these men was unique when compared to the other people who ate in the cafeteria that day.
- Provide at least two additional questions you would have liked the investigators to have asked the patients or employees.
- Explain why you feel these questions would have helped.
The Eleven Blue Men assignment
- Must be two to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA StyleLinks to an external site. as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA Formatting for Microsoft WordLinks to an external site. resource.
- Must include a separate title page with the following:
- Title of paper in bold font
- Space should appear between the title and the rest of the information on the title page.
- Student’s name
- Name of institution (The University of Arizona Global Campus)
- Course name and number
- Instructor’s name
- Due date
- Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic VoiceLinks to an external site. resource for additional guidance.
- Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.
- For assistance on writing Introductions & ConclusionsLinks to an external site. and Writing a Thesis StatementLinks to an external site., refer to the Writing Center resources.
- Must use at least the Roueché (2014) article in addition to the course text.
- The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible SourcesLinks to an external site. table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source.
- To assist you in completing the research required for this assignment, view Quick and Easy Library ResearchLinks to an external site. tutorial, which introduces the University of Arizona Global Campus Library and the research process, and provides some library search tips.
- Must document any information used from sources in APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA: Citing Within Your PaperLinks to an external site. guide.
- Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center. See the APA: Formatting Your References ListLinks to an external site. resource in the Writing Center for specifications.
Carefully review the Grading RubricLinks to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
Expert Solution Preview
In this assignment, we will analyze the outbreak investigation of the famous incident known as Eleven Blue Men. This event, which took place in 1944, highlights the significance and rapidity of conducting a thorough epidemiologic investigation. By examining the 13 steps of an outbreak investigation, assessing the epidemic curve, calculating the incubation period, and exploring the questions asked by the physicians and epidemiologists involved, we can gain valuable insights into this unique incident.
1. Describe the 13 steps of an outbreak investigation and connect them to this particular event in 1944.
The 13 steps of an outbreak investigation are as follows:
1. Recognition of an outbreak
2. Confirmation and verification of the outbreak
3. Formulating a case definition
4. Finding cases systematically and listing them
5. Descriptive epidemiology
6. Generating hypotheses
7. Testing hypotheses
8. Analytical epidemiology
9. Environmental investigations
10. Controlling the outbreak
11. Implementing control and preventive measures
12. Communication of results
13. Monitor control measures and evaluate effectiveness
In the Eleven Blue Men incident, the steps of outbreak investigation were as follows:
– Recognition of an outbreak: The unusual presentation of eleven patients with blue skin color alerted the medical community.
– Confirmation and verification of the outbreak: Medical professionals investigated and verified the cases through physical examination and laboratory tests.
– Formulating a case definition: The criteria for individuals with blue skin and related symptoms were established.
– Finding cases systematically and listing them: The eleven affected men were identified and listed for further investigation.
– Descriptive epidemiology: Characteristics of the cases, such as age, occupation, and location, were recorded to identify commonalities.
– Generating hypotheses: Potential causes of the blue skin condition were hypothesized, including exposure to a certain substance or food.
– Testing hypotheses: Experiments and additional medical examinations were conducted to gather evidence and support or refute the hypotheses.
– Analytical epidemiology: Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association between the exposure and the illness.
– Environmental investigations: Investigations were carried out to identify the source of exposure, such as the food consumed or substances encountered.
– Controlling the outbreak: Measures were taken to prevent further spread of the illness and limit exposure to the possible causative factor.
– Implementing control and preventive measures: Necessary interventions were implemented to control the outbreak and minimize the risk of recurrence.
– Communication of results: Findings, including the cause of the blue skin condition, were communicated to the medical community and relevant authorities.
– Monitor control measures and evaluate effectiveness: The effectiveness of interventions and control measures was monitored to ensure they were successful in preventing new cases.
2. Assess and draw the epidemic curve for this incident.
The epidemic curve for the Eleven Blue Men incident represents a point source outbreak. The curve would show a rapid rise in cases, reaching a peak, followed by a decline. As the individuals were all exposed to the same causative factor (possibly a substance or food item), the onset of illness would occur within a relatively short time period. The graph would show a steep upward slope, reaching a maximum, and then a sharp decline, indicating a short-duration outbreak.
3. Calculate and state the incubation period for the illness affecting the eleven blue men.
To calculate the incubation period, we would need information about the time between exposure and the onset of symptoms for each of the eleven men. Unfortunately, precise data regarding the incubation period for the Eleven Blue Men incident is not provided in the given information. Therefore, it is not possible to calculate and state the incubation period for this particular case.
4. Identify three questions that Dr. Greenberg asked the patients.
Three questions that Dr. Greenberg might have asked the patients could include:
1. Did you eat or drink anything out of the ordinary before the onset of your symptoms?
2. Have you been exposed to any unusual substances or chemicals recently?
3. Did you have any respiratory symptoms or coughing before the discoloration of your skin?
5. Identify three questions that Dr. Pellitteri asked the patients.
Three questions that Dr. Pellitteri might have asked the patients could include:
1. Do you have any history of allergies or sensitivities to certain foods or substances?
2. Have you experienced any changes in your appetite or digestion in the past few days?
3. Are you taking any medications or undergoing any medical treatments that could potentially cause these symptoms?
6. Identify three questions that the epidemiologists asked the Eclipse Cafeteria employees.
Three questions that the epidemiologists might have asked the Eclipse Cafeteria employees could include:
1. Did you notice any changes in the appearance or texture of the food items served on the day the incident occurred?
2. Have you observed any employees exhibiting symptoms similar to the blue men?
3. Can you provide information about the supplier or source of ingredients used in the food prepared that day?
7. Identify the culprit.
Based on the information provided, it is not possible to identify the specific culprit responsible for the blue skin condition among the eleven men. Further investigation and analysis of the possible exposure sources and the distinctive characteristics of these men compared to the others who ate in the cafeteria that day would be required.
8. Provide at least two additional questions you would have liked the investigators to have asked the patients or employees.
Two additional questions that would have been helpful for the investigators to ask the patients or employees are:
1. Did you have any contact with substances or objects that were visibly contaminated or unusual in appearance?
2. Can you recall any previous incidents or similar outbreaks that occurred in the same cafeteria or nearby areas?
These questions would help gather more information about potential sources of contamination or previous similar incidents, aiding in the identification and prevention of future outbreaks.
In conclusion, the outbreak investigation of the Eleven Blue Men incident involved several crucial steps, such as recognition, confirmation, and verification of the outbreak, descriptive and analytical epidemiology, and environmental investigations. The epidemic curve for this incident represents a point source outbreak, showing a rapid rise and decline in cases. Unfortunately, the specific incubation period is not provided. Dr. Greenberg and Dr. Pellitteri likely asked questions related to exposure, symptoms, and medical history, while the epidemiologists focused on gathering information about food preparation and potential sources of contamination. Despite the valuable investigations, the precise culprit responsible for the blue skin condition remains undisclosed. Additional questions regarding visible contamination and previous incidents would have further assisted the investigation.