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Qualitative research is a strategy for systematic collection, organization, and interpretation of phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively. In health care, qualitative methodologies aim to explore complex phenomena encountered by nurses, other providers, policy makers, and patients (Vaismoradi, 2013). Qualitative research is a strategy for precise collection, organization and interpretation of written information. Qualitative research question thoughtful, deliberate and relies on a set of established well defined methodology. Qualitative research works from the ground up to generates novel insights into phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively. Such as preferences for end of life care. The goal of qualitative research is to achieve a depth of understanding, generating a hypothesis. Qualitative research occurs in a natural setting. The purpose of qualitative research is to explore the meaning of peoples experiences, cultures and how they view certain situations.

Discuss the different types of qualitative research design

The five different types of qualitative research designs are ethnographic, narrative,  phenomenological,  grounded theory, and case study. Ethnography focuses on context and culture and is obtained by interviews and observation. Perhaps the hardest part of ethnographic field research is to be able to see things from someone else’s point of view (Wilcox, 2012).  Narrative focuses on individual experiences and sequence and is obtained by stories from individuals and documents. Phenomenological focuses on  People who have experienced a phenomenon and are obtained by interviewing. Grounded theory focuses on  developing a theory from grounded in field data and obtained from interviews and open axial coding. Case study focuses on  organization, entity, individual, or event and the data is collected by interviews, documents, reports, and observations (Sauro, 2015.)

Identify and describe a minimum of two types of sampling techniques used in qualitative research.

Two techniques that are used in qualitative research is purposeful sampling and convenience sampling. Convenience sampling is samples of  participants that were convenient for the researcher to recruit. This type is the least scientific and lacks credibility. Purposeful sampling is a sample of participants that were thoughtfully,purposely recruited by the researcher. There are several sub-groups of purposeful sampling: Snowball sample,opportunistic sample, and maximum variation sample. 

Describe methods for collecting data for qualitative research.

Methods for collecting data for qualitative research include focus group, observation, document review, and auto and visual materials. There are two types of interviews structured interview and informal interview. A structured interview has a predetermined set of questions. An informal interview goes with the flow of the conversation and creates questions as the researcher goes.

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Qualitative research designs offer a valuable approach for exploring complex phenomena within the field of healthcare. Five different types of qualitative research designs can be identified: ethnographic, narrative, phenomenological, grounded theory, and case study.

Firstly, ethnographic research focuses on the context and culture surrounding a particular phenomenon. It involves obtaining data through interviews and observation, with a primary aim of understanding the perspective of individuals within a specific setting.

Secondly, narrative research examines individual experiences and sequences. It involves gathering data through stories shared by individuals and documents related to those experiences. Narrative research provides a deeper understanding of personal stories and perspectives.

Another type of qualitative research design is phenomenological, which explores the experiences of individuals who have encountered a particular phenomenon. This design is commonly used to capture participants’ insights and perspectives through interviews.

Grounded theory research aims to develop a theory based on data collected in the field. This design involves conducting interviews and using open axial coding to capture and analyze data, ultimately generating a theory grounded in the collected information.

Lastly, case study research explores a specific organization, entity, individual, or event. Data collection methods for this type of research include interviews, document reviews, reports, and observations.

In qualitative research, two key sampling techniques are purposeful sampling and convenience sampling. Convenience sampling involves selecting participants based on availability, which is the least scientific and lacks credibility. On the other hand, purposeful sampling involves thoughtfully and deliberately recruiting participants based on specific criteria. Sub-groups of purposeful sampling include snowball sampling, opportunistic sampling, and maximum variation sampling.

Data collection methods in qualitative research encompass various approaches such as focus groups, observations, document reviews, and the use of audio and visual materials. Interviews can be either structured, with a predetermined set of questions, or informal, with questions arising organically during the conversation. These methods ensure the collection of rich and diverse data necessary for qualitative research.

Therefore, a combination of appropriate qualitative research designs, sampling techniques, and data collection methods can offer valuable insights and a depth of understanding within the healthcare field.

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